5 0 Updated: 2020-03-28 12:21:44 Listed: 2020-03-26 Report WEB ID: 811



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   We shall explain how and why the atoms can combine to form molecules. It is in this manner that the whole complexity of nature has been created.
   We have said that every atom possesses a certain number of protons and neutrons composing the nucleus. Around this nucleus, electrons, and equal in number to the protons.
   The electrons are not randomly distributed around the nucleus. On the contrary, their distribution obeys strict rules. According to these rules they spread in differrent shells around the nucleus. But these shells have a definite number of electrons.
   To better understand this phenomenon, let's invent a game. Suppose that with some schoolmates we decided to circle around a tree. The rules of the game dictate that we should circle at a distance of one meter from the tree, and no more than two players should be involved. We call this distance K. The distance L should be three meters with eight players circling. The distance M should be eight metres with eighteen players circling, etc...
   The natural laws, governing the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus, are the same. The first shell of electrons or shell K, cannot have more than two electrons, the next one L not more than eight, the following one M not more than eighteen etc... The force keeping the electron at a certain distance from the nucleus is called the electromagnetic force.
   However, the most exterior shells of the electrons of the an atom are rarely complete, meaning that often the shell M that had to contain eighteen electrons contains less. This may be the result of physical conditions obliging the most exterior electrons to leave their shell. So, the rules governing the game are no more satisfied.
   What shall we do? The atom resorts then to an artifice allowing it to complete its electronic exterior shells. This artifice consists in combining with another atom, which also has a lack in its electronic peripheral shells. So, in combining the electrons they possess in the exterior shells, two or more atoms approach each other and form a molecule. At the same time, by exchanging their electrons, the exterior layers of the two atoms mutually complete each other.
   Thus, two hydrogen atoms by combining with one oxygen atom form one water molecule, one hydrogen atom combining with one chlorine atom form a hydrochloric acid molecule, etc...
   The electromagnetic force is also responsible for many other phenomenae. We can mention for instance magnetism that allows the magnet to attract a piece of iron, radio and  T.V. transmissions, the starting of an electrical engine permitting a toy car to run, and many other applications.

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